26th September 2022 By ravikumarsilva Off

10 Laws of Democracy

Plato`s Republic presents a critical view of democracy through Socrates` account: “Democracy, which is a charming form of government, full of diversity and disorder, and which distributes a kind of equality for equals and unequals.” [203] In his work, Plato lists 5 forms of government from best to worst. Assuming that the republic should be a serious critique of political thought in Athens, Plato argues that only Kallipolis, an aristocracy ruled by reluctant philosopher kings (the wisest men), is a just form of government. [204] Democratic societies operate in accordance with the rule of law. This essentially means that the laws of a nation apply equally to all peoples and that everyone, especially the government, must abide by the rules. This means that the rights and freedoms and democratic processes described above are respected and maintained. And it means that laws are also enforced fairly and consistently, and that there is an independent body, such as the courts, to resolve disputes that arise. Liberties recently published its parallel report to the EU on the current state of the rule of law across the bloc and noted a number of worrying trends in many member states. One of my main tasks at the IBJ was to research and write an article on the relationship between democracy and the rule of law. The aim was to show that democracy could not exist without the rule of law and that it is simply not enough to worry about the rule of law during elections to maintain democracy. I am confident that some of my language will be useful for IBJ grant applications in the future.

3 See the Secretary-General`s Guide to Democracy, available at www.un.org/democracyfund/guidance-note-un-secretary-general-democracy. Evidence consistent with conventional theories about why democracy emerges and is maintained has been hard to find. James Madison criticized direct democracy (which he simply called “democracy”) in Federalist No. 10, arguing that representative democracy — which he described with the term “republic” — is a preferred form of government, saying, ” Democracies have always been spectacles of turbulence and conflict; have previously been found to be incompatible with personal safety or property rights; and were generally as short in their lives as they were violent in their deaths. Madison offered that republics were superior to democracies because republics protected themselves from the tyranny of the majority, and said in Federalist No. 10: “The same advantage that a republic has over a democracy, by controlling the effects of the faction, enjoys a great one over a small republic.” Cosmopolitan democracy, also known as global democracy or global federalism, is a political system in which democracy is implemented on a global scale, either directly or through representatives. An important justification for this type of system is that decisions taken in national or regional democracies often affect people outside the constituency who, by definition, cannot vote. In a cosmopolitan democracy, on the other hand, those affected by decisions also have a say. [190] Electoral justice is another example of the links between democracy and the rule of law. Electoral justice shall ensure that every act, procedure and decision related to the electoral process is in accordance with the law and that the enjoyment of the right to vote is protected and restored so that persons who believe that their right to vote has been violated have the opportunity to lodge a complaint, to receive a hearing and to receive a decision.

An electoral system is a key instrument of the rule of law and the ultimate guarantee of respect for the democratic principle of holding free, fair and genuine elections.6 First of all, your club is quite small, only a dozen people. You can easily meet to discuss club-related issues, create rules or regulations for your organization, and vote on various suggestions on how to spend money or on activities you can do together. Everyone has an equal chance to suggest topics for discussion, and anyone can express an opinion. The definition of democracy refers to the form of government in which the power of the people is exercised directly or indirectly. In this regard, “direct democracy” is the form of government in which people decide on different policies without representatives; People have the power and authority to determine. In “indirect democracies”, also known as “representative democracies”, some people are elected to represent the rest of the citizens. There are different types of democracies, and it is often possible to encounter a combination of these different types. What is typical and essential in a democracy is freedom of assembly, association and expression, the right to vote and fair elections; To be considered a democracy, a country must also guarantee equality and freedom to every citizen. It must also promote participation, transparency, the protection of human rights and the rule of law.

If a State does not have these essential characteristics, it cannot be considered democratic. Condorcet`s jury theorem is the logical proof that if each decision-maker has a better than random probability of making the right decision, the largest number of decision-makers, that is, a democracy, will lead to the best decisions. This has also been argued by theories about the wisdom of the crowd. The speaker cannot simply be removed from office by the legislature, but he or she cannot dismiss members of the legislature more easily. This allows for a certain degree of separation of powers. As a result, however, the president and legislature may fall under the control of separate parties, allowing one to block the other, thus interfering with the proper functioning of the state. Perhaps this is why presidential democracy is not very common outside of America, Africa, and Central and Southeast Asia. [176] Some anarcho-communists reject the majority character of direct democracy, believing that it can impede individual freedom and opt for a non-majority form of consensual democracy, similar to Proudhon`s position on direct democracy. [187] Henry David Thoreau, who did not identify as an anarchist but advocated for “better government”[188] and is cited as a source of inspiration by some anarchists, argued that people should not be able to govern others or be governed if there is no consent.

For example, if we look at the 2021 report, Norway reaches the highest level; it is considered a perfect democracy in the Democracy Index. Norway is a representative democracy; It is a constitutional monarchy in which the head of state is the king, and it is possible to find a parliamentary system. Instead, the United States is an imperfect democracy. Although it is still a representative democracy like Norway, most decisions are actually taken by the representatives of the people, not directly by the people. It is also an electoral democracy, all the people who were elected to represent the citizens will have power after the election. The United States is also a presidential democracy, which means that the same person embodies the functions of head of government and head of state. It is a constitutional democracy; Its essential principles are set out in the Constitution. When we say this is imperfect, we actually consider that the “index of democracy” that the United States has received is a lower level, which means that there are gray areas. When a country is considered an “imperfect democracy”, it usually means that it has not reached a sufficient level of the 60 indicators and the different categories to be considered “perfect”. There may be limitations and weaknesses in governance and political culture, a lower level of political participation and perhaps some restrictions on press freedom, but it is clear that free elections, civil rights and freedom must be guaranteed. Qualified majority voting is provided for in the Treaty of Rome as the main means of decision-making in the European Council of Ministers.

This system distributes votes among Member States partly according to their population, but strongly in favour of small States. This could be seen as a form of representative democracy, but representatives on the Council could be appointed rather than directly elected. The rule of law is a thousand-year-old principle that refers to how States are governed.